First, look at the order of notes on the piano diagram above. Starting from C, the musical alphabet is as follows:
C – C#/D♭ – D – D#/E♭ – E – F – F#/G♭ -G – G#/A♭ – A – A#/B♭ – B – C
Remember that there is not sharp/flat between B-C and E-F. Now, if we were to play every note from C – C we would call it the Chromatic scale. The same sequence of notes is the same across the Bass fret board, however each string is tuned to a different note (see diagram below)
The notes outside the grid to your left represent the open string notes of a bass. The diagram above is in standard tuning in which E is your thickest string and G is your thinnest. Follow the chromatic scale up the neck until you reach your 12th fret (marked by 2 dots), being your next octave up.